Below we will look at a program in Excel VBA that solves a small instance of a knapsack problem.

Definition: Given a set of items, each with a weight and a value, determine the items to include in a collection so that the total value is as large as possible and the total weight is less than a given limit. It derives its name from the problem faced by someone who is constrained by a fixed-size knapsack and must fill it with the most useful items.

Example: 5 items with weights, values and limit as given.

In Excel this problem looks as follows:

1. First, we declare five variables of type Double with names limit, weight, value, totalWeight and maximumValue.

```
Dim limit As Double, weight As Double, value As Double, totalWeight As Double, maximumValue As Double
```

2. Next, we declare five variables of type Integer with with names i, j, k, l, m.

```
Dim i, j, k, l, m As Integer
```

3. We initialize two variables. We initialize the variable limit with the value of cell D6. We initialize the variable maximumValue with value 0.

```
limit = Range("D6").value
maximumValue = 0
```

4. Next, we check each possible solution. We can either include an item (1) or leave it out (0). We start 5 For Next loops. One for each item.

```
For i = 0 To 1
For j = 0 To 1
For k = 0 To 1
For l = 0 To 1
For m = 0 To 1
```

5. We calculate the weight and the value of a possible solution.

```
weight = 12 * i + 2 * j + 1 * k + 1 * l + 4 * m
value = 4 * i + 2 * j + 2 * k + 1 * l + 10 * m
```

6. Only if value is higher than maximumValue and weight is lower than limit, we've found a new better solution.

```
If value > maximumValue And weight <= limit Then
```

7. If true, we write the new solution to row 4, weight to totalWeight and value to maximumValue.

```
Range("B4").value = i
Range("C4").value = j
Range("D4").value = k
Range("E4").value = l
Range("F4").value = m
totalWeight = weight
maximumValue = value
```

8. Don't forget to close the If statement.

```
End If
```

9. Don't forget to close the 5 For Next loops.

```
Next m
Next l
Next k
Next j
Next i
```

Excel VBA checks each possible solution this way and as a result the optimal solution will appear in row 4. Remember, 1 means we include an item, 0 means we leave it out.

10. Finally, write totalWeight and maximumValue of the optimal solution to respectively cell B6 and B8.

```
Range("B6").value = totalWeight
Range("B8").value = maximumValue
```

11. Test the program.

Result:

Conclusion: it's optimal to include the last four items with a maximum value of 15. This solution with a total weight of 2 + 1 + 1 + 4 = 8 does not exceed the limit of 15.

Note: by making the weights and values variable you can solve any knapsack problem of this size (see downloadable Excel file).